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Maps that explain the English language

by Libby Nelson on March 3, 2015

English is the language of Shakespeare and the language of Chaucer. It's spoken in dozens of countries around the world, from the United States to a tiny island named Tristan da Cunha. It reflects the influences of centuries of international exchange, including conquest and colonization, from the Vikings through the 21st century. Here are 25 maps and charts that explain how English got started and evolved into the differently accented languages spoken today.



Английский - язык Шекспира и язык Чосера. На нем говорят десятки стран мира от США до крошечных островов Тристан-да-Кунья. В нем есть отпечатки истории от викингов до интернет сообществ. Вот 25 карт которые объясняют как Английский Язык стал таковым какой он есть сейчас и почему он такой разношерстный. (картинки кликабельны - ссылка на оригинал с большим разрешением) не дословный перевод статьи.



The origins of English. Происхождение Английского Языка.

Where English comes from

English, like more than 400 other languages, is part of the Indo-European language family, sharing common roots not just with German and French but with Russian, Hindi, Punjabi, and Persian. This beautiful chart by Minna Sundberg, a Finnish-Swedish comic artist, shows some of English's closest cousins, like French and German, but also its more distant relationships with languages originally spoken far from the British Isles such as Farsi and Greek.


Откуда Английский пришел

Английский, как и еще более 400 языков, часть индоевропейской языковой семьи, имеющий общие корни не только с немецким и французским, но и русским, хинди, пенджаби и персидским. Этот прекрасный рисунок, сделаный Minna Sundberg финско-шведским иллюстратором комиксов, прекрасно показывает близость таких языков как французский и немецкий, так же показывает дальность таких как греческий и фарси.



Where Indo-European languages are spoken in Europe today

Saying that English is Indo-European, though, doesn't really narrow it down much. This map shows where Indo-European languages are spoken in Europe, the Middle East, and South Asia today, and makes it easier to see what languages don't share a common root with English: Finnish and Hungarian among them.


Индоевропейский язык сегодня

Эта карта показывает где сегодня говорят на индоевропейских языках в Европе, на Ближнем Востоке и Южной Азии и так же можно легко заметить какие языки не имеют общих корней с английским например финский и венгерский среди них.



The Anglo-Saxon migration

Here's how the English language got started: After Roman troops withdrew from Britain in the early 5th century, three Germanic peoples — the Angles, Saxons, and Jutes — moved in and established kingdoms. They brought with them the Anglo-Saxon language, which combined with some Celtic and Latin words to create Old English. Old English was first spoken in the 5th century, and it looks incomprehensible to today's English-speakers. To give you an idea of just how different it was, the language the Angles brought with them had three genders (masculine, feminine, and neutral). Still, though the gender of nouns has fallen away in English, 4,500 Anglo-Saxon words survive today. They make up only about 1 percent of the comprehensive Oxford English Dictionary, but nearly all of the most commonly used words that are the backbone of English. They include nouns like "day" and "year," body parts such as "chest," arm," and "heart," and some of the most basic verbs: "eat," "kiss," "love," "think," "become." FDR's sentence "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself" uses only words of Anglo-Saxon origin.


Миграция англосаксов

Вот как возник Английский Язык: После того как Римские войска покинули Британию в начале 5 века, три германских народа - англы, саксы, и юты - заселили острова и основали свои королевства. Они принесли с собой англосаксонский язык, который в сочетании с некоторыми кельтскими и латинскими словами создали Древнеанглийский язык. На древнеанглийском впервые заговорили в 5 веке и он был бы совершено не понятен современному англоговорящему услышь он его. В современном английском сохранилось около 4500 англосаксонских слов. Что соответствует всего лишь 1 проценту слов Оксфордского словаря, но многие слова являются костяком языка, такие как "day" и "year," части тела "chest," arm," и "heart," и многие глаголы : "eat," "kiss," "love," "think," "become".



The Danelaw

The next source of English was Old Norse. Vikings from present-day Denmark, some led by the wonderfully named Ivar the Boneless, raided the eastern coastline of the British Isles in the 9th century. They eventually gained control of about half of the island. Their language was probably understandable by speakers of English. But Old Norse words were absorbed into English: legal terms such as "law" and "murder" and the pronouns "they," "them," and "their" are of Norse origin. "Arm" is Anglo-Saxon, but "leg" is Old Norse; "wife" is Anglo-Saxon," but "husband" is Old Norse.


Данелаг

Следующим донором новых слов стал Древнескандина́вский язык. Викинги с территории современной Дании под предводительством Ивара Бескостного, напали на восточное побережье Британских островов в 9 веке. В конечном итоге они взяли под контроль половину Британии. С тех времен сохранились такие слова как: "law" и "murder" , "they," "them," и "their". Забавно, что "arm" англосакское слово, но "leg" древнескандинавское; "wife" - англосаксонское," но "husband" is древнескандинавское.



The Norman Conquest

The real transformation of English — which started the process of turning it into the language we speak today — came with the arrival of William the Conqueror from Normandy, in today's France. The French that William and his nobles spoke eventually developed into a separate dialect, Anglo-Norman. Anglo-Norman became the language of the medieval elite. It contributed around 10,000 words, many still used today. In some cases, Norman words ousted the Old English words. But in others, they lived side by side as synonyms. Norman words can often sound more refined: "sweat" is Anglo-Saxon, but "perspire" is Norman. Military terms (battle, navy, march, enemy), governmental terms (parliament, noble), legal terms (judge, justice, plaintiff, jury), and church terms (miracle, sermon, virgin, saint) were almost all Norman in origin. The combination of Anglo-Norman and Old English led to Middle English, the language of Chaucer.


Нормандское завоевание Англии

По настоящему серьезные видоизменения которые привели к сегодняшнему английскому, пришли вместе с Вильгельмом Завоевателем из Нормандии, современной северной Франции. Язык (французкий) на котором говорил Вильгельм и его дворяне со временем превратился в англонормандский язык. Он стал языком средневековой английской элиты. Он содержит около 10000 слов, многие которые до сих пор в обиходе. Иногда они вытесняли древнеанглийские слова, иногда использовались как синонимы. Военные слова (battle, navy, march, enemy), государственные (parliament, noble), юридические (judge, justice, plaintiff, jury), и религиозные (miracle, sermon, virgin, saint) почти все были нормандскими.



The Great Vowel Shift

If you think English spelling is confusing — why "head" sounds nothing like "heat," or why "steak" doesn't rhyme with "streak," and "some" doesn't rhyme with "home" — you can blame the Great Vowel Shift. Between roughly 1400 and 1700, the pronunciation of long vowels changed. "Mice" stopped being pronounced "meese." "House" stopped being prounounced like "hoose." Some words, particularly words with "ea," kept their old pronounciation. (And Northern English dialects were less affected, one reason they still have a distinctive accent.) This shift is how Middle English became modern English. No one is sure why this dramatic shift occurred. But it's a lot less dramatic when you consider it took 300 years. Shakespeare was as distant from Chaucer as we are from Thomas Jefferson.


Великий сдвиг гласных

Если вы думаете английское произношение запутанное - почему "head" абсолютно не как "heat," или почему "steak" не рифмуется с "streak," и "some" так же не рифмуется с "home" — вините в этом Великий сдвиг гласных. Между 1400 и 1700 произношение согласных изменилось. "Mice" перестало произносится как "meese." "House" перестало произносится как "hoose." Этот сдвиг от средневекового английского к современному английскому. Никто достоверно не знает почему эти изменения произошли.

The colonization of America

The British settlers coming to different parts of America in the 17th and 18th centuries were from different regional, class, and religious backgrounds, and brought with them distinctive ways of speaking. Puritans from East Anglia contributed to the classic Boston accent; Royalists migrating to the South brought a drawl; and Scots-Irish moved to the Appalaichans. Today's American English is actually closer to 18th-century British English in pronunciation than current-day British English is. Sometime in the 19th century, British pronunciation changed significantly, particularly whether "r"s are pronounced after vowels.


Колонизация Америки

Британские переселенцы пришли в различные части Америки в 17 и 18 веках, они были из разных регионов, социальных классов и приверженцы различных религий. Пуритане из Восточной Англии внесли весомый вклад в бостонский акцент; Роялисты, мигрирующие на юг принесли с собой протяжные звуки и тд. Сегодняшний Американский Английский ближе Британскому Английскому 18-го века чем современный Британский Английский.

Early exploration of Australia

Many of the first Europeans to settle in Australia, beginning in the late 1700s, were convicts from the British Isles, and the Australian English accent probably started with their children in and around Sydney. Australia, unlike the US, doesn't have a lot of regional accents. But it does have many vocabulary words borrowed from Aboriginal languages: kangaroo, boomerang, and wombat among them.


Раннее исследование Австралии

Многие из первых европейцев поселившиеся в Австралии, начиная с конца 1700, были осужденные с Британских островов, и австралийский английский акцент, вероятно, возник у их детей около Сиднея. Австралия в отличие от США не имеет такого разнообразия местных акцентов. Некоторые слова из аборигенских языков пришлом в английский: kangaroo, boomerang, и wombat среди них.



Canada

British Loyalists flooded into Canada during the American Revolution. As a result, Canadian English sounds a lot like American English, but it's maintained many of the "ou" words from its British parent (honour, colour, valour). There's also some uniquely Canadian vocabulary, many of which is shown in this word cloud. Canada is undergoing a vowel shift of its own, where "milk" is pronounced like "melk" by some speakers. But unlike British and American English, which has a variety of regional accents, Canadian English is fairly homogenous.


Канада

Британские лоялисты приплыли в Канаду во время Американской Революции. Как результат, канадский английский звучит как американский, но сохранились "ou" слова (honour, colour, valour). Канада переживает свой сдвиг гласных к примеру произносят "milk" как "melk". Так же канадский достаточно однородный в отличии от американского и британского.



English in India

The British East India Company brought English to the Indian subcontinent in the 17th century, and the period of British colonialism established English as the governing language. It still is, in part due to India's incredible linguistic diversity. But languages from the subcontinent contributed to English, too. The words "shampoo," "pajamas," "bungalow," "bangle," and "cash" all come from Indian languages. The phrase "I don't give a damn" was once speculated to refer to an Indian coin. This probably isn't true — the Oxford English Dictionary disagrees — but it shows that language exchange during the colonial era was a two-way street.


Индия

Британская Ост-Индская компания принесла английский язык на Индийский субконтинет в 17 веке и в период колониализма он был государственным языком. Он по прежнему является частью невообразимого лингвистического разнообразия. Некоторые слова перекочевали с местных языков например: "shampoo," "pajamas," "bungalow," "bangle," и "cash".



Which countries in Europe can speak English

English is one of the three official "procedural languages" of the European Union. The president of German recently suggested making it the only official language. But how well people in each European Union country speak English varies considerably. This map shows where most people can — and can't — have an English conversation.


Процент говорящих на Английском в Европе

Английский - один из трех официальных языков Европейского Союза. Президент Германии недавно предложил сделать его единственным. Но, насколько хорошо люди в каждой стране Европейского Союза говорят на английском значительно варьируется. Эта карта показывает, где большинство людей может - и не может - говорить на английском.



How vocabulary changes based on what you're writing

Borrowing words from other language didn't stop when Old English evolved into Middle English. The Enlightenment brought an influx of Greek and Latin words into English — words for scientific concepts that moved into broader use as science developed. Scientific vocabulary is still usually based on Greek or Latin roots that aren't used in ordinary conversation. On the other hand, Mark Twain, master of the American dialect, relied heavily on good old Anglo-Saxon words in his work, a reflection of the endurance of those very old words for the most ordinary concepts in everyday life.


Как изменилась лексика

Поглощение слов из других языков не остановилось когда древнеанглийский эволюционировал в средневековый английский. Эпоха Просвещения принесла приток греческих и латинских слов - особенно для обозначения всевозможных научных явлений. С другой стороны, Марк Твен, мастер американского диалекта, полагался на старые добрые англосаксонские слова в своих книгах.

Vocabulary of Shakespeare vs. rappers

Designer Matt Daniels looked at the first 35,000 words of artists' rap lyrics — and the first 35,000 words of Moby-Dick, along with 35,000 words from Shakespeare's plays — to compare the size of their vocabularies. He found that some have bigger vocabularies than Shakespeare or Melville. Of course, vocabulary size isn't the only measure of artistry. But it's an interesting look at how English has changed.


Лексикон Шекспира и реперов

Дизайнер Matt Daniels взял 35,000 слов из рэп текстов и сравнил их с 35,000 слов из романа Моби Дик и 35,000 слов из шекспировских пьес - на проверку на словарный запас. Он обнаружил, что некоторые из лексиконов больше чем у Шекспира или Мелвилла. Но конечно же размер словаря не может быть показателем качества . Но тем не менее сравнение интересно.



Where Cockneys come from

The traditional definition of a Cockney in London is someone born within earshot of the bells of St.-Mary-le-Bow church -- the area highlighted in tan on this map. (The smaller circles within it are where the bells can be heard more loudly in the noisier modern world.) The distinctive Cockney accent or dialect is best known for its rhyming slang, which dates back to at least the 19th century. The slang starts as rhymes, but often the rhyming word is dropped — "to have a butcher's," meaning "to take a look," came from the rhyming of "butcher's hook" with "look." The phrase "blow a raspberry" — which has spread far beyond London — originally comes from the rhyming of "raspberry tart" with "fart.")


Кокни

Традиционное определение Кокни это тех кто родился в районе слышимости колоколов церкви Сент-Мэри-ле-Боу - эта территория обозначена на карте. Отличительной чертой кокни акцента или диалекта, является его рифмы сленга, которые возникли до 19-го века.



Dialects and accents in Britain

There are three general types of British accents in England: Northern English, Southern English, and the Midlands accent. One of the most obvious features is whether "bath" is pronounced like the a in "cat" (as it is in the US and in Northern English dialects) or like the a in "father" (as it is in Southern English dialects). The generic British accent, meanwhile, is known as "Received Pronunciation," which is basically a Southern English accent used among the elite that erases regional differences. Here's a video of one woman doing 17 British accents, most of which are shown on the map.


Диалекты и акценты в Британии

Есть три основных типа британских акцентов в Англии: Северный английский, Южный, и акценты Мидленд и множество мелких. Вот видео на котором девушка говорит на 17-ти акцентах показывая при этом на карте их распространенность.



American dialects

Here's a detailed map of how Americans talk. The bright green dialects are all subsets of "general Northern" — a generic American accent used by about two-thirds of the US, according to linguist Robert Delaney, who built this map. But it includes many subsets. The Eastern New England accent is the "pahk the cah in Hahvahd Yahd" accent. In the South, you can see how English has and hasn't changed over generations. The South Midland accent retains some words from Elizabethan English. And the Coastal Southern accent retains some colonial vocabulary, like "catty-corner".




You guys vs. y'all

One thing that English lost over time is the useful second-person plural. "You" became standard sometime in the 1500s, and unlike French (which differentiates between talking to one person and talking to several, and between talking to someone you're intimate with and someone you're not), it's pretty much a catchall. But American English has found plenty of ways to fill the gap. There's the Southern "y'all," the Pittsburghian "yinz," and the Bostonian "youse." Here's how people in the US address more than one person, from the invaluable dialect maps from North Carolina State's Joshua Katz.


Английский язык (как и русский кстати) двойственное число, которое раньше было высоко распространено. Некоторые выражения остались с тех времен, например: южное "y'all," питсбургское "yinz," или бостонское "youse".



Источник: http://www.vox.com/2015/3/3/8053521/25-maps-that-explain-english